Apart from Mass Transit options, citizens should also look to embrace other forms of personal mobility. For their part, city municipalities should also foster an environment which would better enable citizens to explore these alternative personal mobility options.
The most basic feature of urban walkability is complete, continuous, and safe walkway networks that provide clear protection from motor vehicles, and are accessible to all people, including those with disabilities.Shade and shelter help to make the walkable environment more comfortable and more accessible by protecting pedestrians from heat, rain, and other elements.
On days when the weather is nice and conditions are favourable, citizens can enjoy some fresh air by opting to walk on their way to lunch when they are at work. It helps reduce the number of cars on the road and promotes a healthy and active lifestyle.
Cycling to work is a fantastic way to stay healthy and save money whilst looking after the planet. With more cities developing new cycling lanes and enhancing existing ones, cycling to work is slowly becoming a choice for more Malaysians.
Potential accidents, the lack of a cycle-friendly infrastructure, and worries about rain and heat keep many from hopping onto their bicycles. “The main factor that keeps cycling rates low in many cities is that most people are not comfortable sharing space in streets with fast-moving cars and trucks,” says Mark Vallianatos, policy director at the Urban and Environmental Policy Institute, Occidental College, in Los Angeles, California.
Cycling infrastructure, however, is not just about bike lanes. Bike-sharing schemes around the world have lured both residents and tourists onto two wheels. For privately owned bikes, the worry is theft. Thus, secure parking for bikes is crucial.
Electric vehicles (EVs)
As technology continues to progress and develop, there have been many advancements made in the realm of electric vehicles. Since the introduction of hybrid cars in the late 90s, there are now many mass-produced EVs that are available to the masses.
While no greenhouse gas emissions come directly from EVs, in many parts of the world they run on electricity that is, largely still produced from fossil fuels. Energy is also used to manufacture the vehicle and the battery.
However, EVs are responsible for considerably lower emissions over their lifetime than conventional (internal combustion engine) vehicles. Additionally, as EVs don’t run on oil and therefore don’t necessitate oil changes or any other maintenance related to combustion engines, maintenance is less frequent and less expensive. In the long run, there is potential for exponential cost savings.
At present, EVs are not limited to privately-owned vehicles. There also exist EVs made for commercial settings such as EV fleets for public transport. EV manufacturers have produced busses and rail services to replace traditional internal combustion vehicles.
The need for infrastructure to support mobility options
City planning is integral in transforming the locality to be more walking and cycling friendly. There needs to be infrastructure that builds the confidence of citizens that they will be safe not only from motorists but also from the elements. Adapting the cityscape’s spaces given to motorised forms of transportation provides more space for walking infrastructure to be developed.
Connectivity that prioritises alternative modes of transport over motorised forms of transportation improves walkability by making walking more convenient relative to other modes of transportation.
Having basic services within easy walking distance enables more of these trips to be undertaken on foot. Implementing a township with a mix of uses reduces the distance between homes and services, thereby improving access. Shorter trips are more likely to be done by walking.
Additionally, to encourage the adoption of EVs, infrastructure needs to be built and implemented to support this endeavour. Having easily accessible charging points for EVs will greatly remove some of the concerns that consumers might have in switching to EVs.
 Institute for Transportation and Development Policy: The Bikeshare Planning Guide (2018)